Sculpture deals with three -dimensionality, and it occupy a space which is created with different kinds of traditional as well as modern medium such as stone, wood, terracotta, clay, metal, natural or artificial fiber, glass-fiber, ceramic etc. Space is necessary for a sculptor, the space which is actually occupied with tangible medium is called positive; the space which is not occupied with a material but plays a vital role in the formation and visualization of sculpture is known as negative space, both are tremendous important for a sculptor. Whereas space is a fashion for a painter, as he creates the illusion of a space with the application of perspective, foreshortening and colour on a two dimensional flat surface, on paper, canvas etc. We can even touch a sculpture to feel its actual form, material value, smoothness or roughness of its surface.
Form, light and Shade (real), Surface, Texture, Reflection (on sculptural surface), and Colour these are very much important elements in the creation of a sculpture, it might be figurative or non-figurative, abstract or realistic. Even light (neon, fluorescent), felt and water are included today as a direct visual art medium for many sculptors and installation artist there are few major methods such as carving and modeling which have been practicing since ancient time for the creation of a round or relief sculpture. Construction, Assemblage and knitting are comparatively modern as a technique. Venus of Willendorf (25,000 BCE) is one of the earliest examples of stone (carving) sculpture made by humankind. Carving is the method which subtracts the material stone or wood to get the final form, but modeling does both subtraction and addition simultaneously in the process of formation of a sculpture in clay, wax, and terracotta. Indian subcontinent, ancient Egypt, and Mexico (Maya) is famous for its stone architecture and sculpture, the ancient China, and Greece, south Indian chola knows how to cast a bronze.
Arnaldo Pomodoro, Louise Nevelson, Cesar, Ibram Lassaw, Julio Gonzalez, Alexander Calder, David Smith, Anthony Caro, assembled junk and industrial metal (found object) for their sculpture during the later part of 20th century. Gabo and Pevsner constructed three-dimensional object with the same kinds of industrial materials. Artist of this age for a time knits natural as well as artificial fiber for the creation of a sculptural form.
College of Art and Design (CAD) at Burdwan included all major methods and materials in its BFA and MFA course structure under the guidance of UGC. Foundation students are mainly introduced with clay modeling for their study as well as creative work; whereas students in specialization years of the department of sculpture follow carving, assemblage, knitting and modeling also for their class work.